Mistwoy II- Biług-Billung ojciec ,lud dziadek Mieszka I i Ottonow.

Tworząc „Ciekawostki historyczne” wyszliśmy z prostego założenia: tak naprawdę każdy lubi historię o ile jest to historia odpowiednio przedstawiona. W dziale tym zajmujemy się odkryciami, kontrowersjami, przypadkami przeplatania się historii z życiem codziennym i ze współczesnością.
IsabellaK
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Mistwoy II- Biług-Billung ojciec ,lud dziadek Mieszka I i Ottonow.

Post autor: IsabellaK » 22 lip 2014, 09:58

Biług-Billung ojciec Mieszka , lub jego dzadek.
Poniewaz Mieszko mial jaknajbardziej odziedziczone imie po swoim ojcu dlatego Billung moze okazac sie nie ojcem a dziadkiem Mieszka.Biług-Billung posiadal imie Mistwoy II.Zmarl w 989 roku.
Ottonowie i Piastowie mieli wspolnego przodka Billunga
Billung to postac historyczna z x wieku naszej ery.
Ottonowie sa zwani Billungami w Niemczech.
Versuch einer Geschichte der Churmarck Brandenburg: Von ...
books.google.de/books?id=uiBPAAAAcAAJ
Samuel Buchholtz, ‎Johann Peter Süssmilch, ‎Johann Friedrich Heynatz - 1765 - ‎Lesen - ‎Mehr Ausgaben
Hiedurcl) weckten fie die iibrigen Wenden auch aus dem Sant-immer. und reizten fie, ihre Freyheit zu [nchen und die Oöotritem oder vielmehr ihr Großfücfi Billung vereingto fich mitihnen.“ Es ifi zwar hier eben die rechte Dunkelheit in_

Versuch einer Geschichte der Churmarck Brandenburg: Von der ersten ..., Band 1
von Samuel Buchholtz,Johann Peter Süssmilch,Johann Friedrich Heynatz
strona 211
http://books.google.de/books?id=uiBPAAA ... ng&f=false

The History Of Vandalia: Containing The Ancient And ...
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Thomas Nugent - 1766 - ‎Lesen - ‎Mehr Ausgaben
Containing the reign of Mistevoy II. surnamed Billung, till his death in 989. Billung succeeds to the crown. War between the Venedi and the Saxons. War between Otho the Great and the Danes. Otho turns bis arms against the Venedi.

IsabellaK
Posty: 529
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Re: Mistwoy II- Biług-Billung ojciec ,lud dziadek Mieszka I i Ottonow.

Post autor: IsabellaK » 22 lip 2014, 10:02

Billung byl krolem Oborytow.
Umständliche Geschichte der Kaiserl. und des Heil: ... - Seite 20
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Johann Rudolph Becker - 1782 - ‎Lesen - ‎Mehr Ausgaben
Billung,. Billung, König der Obotriten, starb um das Jahr 989, und. Die Gegend, wo das Bild eines Götzen aufgerichtet stand, oder wo ihm zu Ehren ein Altar gcbauet, und sein Name verehret ward, wurde für heilig gehalten ; daher entstehen ...

IsabellaK
Posty: 529
Rejestracja: 07 cze 2011, 14:50

Re: Mistwoy II- Biług-Billung ojciec ,lud dziadek Mieszka I i Ottonow.

Post autor: IsabellaK » 28 lip 2014, 11:50

Roczniki i kroniki Slowian Zaodrzanskich wpominaja w X wieku ksiazat ;
Stojgniewa, Zelibora, Nakona,Mistuja,Biługa - Bilunga i Cedraga
al-Bakari jako krola podaje tylko Nakona co oznacza ze on byl z braci najstarszy. Pochodzili oni z dynastii Dragow-Draco.
Dragowie wszyscy mieli herb Gryfa a wiec wszyscy pochodzili z 1 dynastii.
Drag to wyraz skandynawskii i oznacza smoka.
Przez to rod Dragow jest rodem smokow, czyli Gryfow.

Tietmari Chronikon Pertz Scriptores III 747, 748-Widukind, Bielowskiego Monumenta I 137-141
Helmondi Chronika Slavorum
cytat..."...
król Obotrytów zowie się Drago, a król Lutyków Dragowit . że syn
Dragona zowie się Cedrag, a wnuk Dragowita Zelidrag, że imię
Drag jest obu dynastyjom wspólne i tak często w obu się
powtarza, wobec faktu, że rody mają zazwyczaj swoje właściwe
upodobane imiona, każe się domyślać, że obie te dynastyje do
jednego rodu szczepowego należą, i że praojciec tego rodu
zwał się Drągiem. Dynastyje te przeto będziemy odtąd zwać
dynastyją Drągów.....

Ród Drągów przeto jest rodem Smoków czyli (Jryfów,
a książęta pomorscy, rujscy i obotryccy,lutyccy , którzy wspólnie za herb (Jryfa-Gryfa sobie przyjęli, są niewątpliwie potomkami starego rodu Hragów.
Wszyscy biora sobie oni przez pare wiekow ksiazat z prastarej lechckiej dynastii Drągów!
Przeciwnie, trzeba koniecznie przyjąć, że po upadku
rodu Popiela, rodu starszego, rodu seniora, zasiadła na stolcu
książęcym ta linija młodsza, która po rodzie seniora była naj-
bliższą do senioratu, i że tą liniją była właśnie linija Choci-
mira i Piasta.
Wszyscy oni maja pochodzic od Samo król Winidów, który różne szczepy pod swoją władzą skojarzył (r. ()23). Panował on lat 35,
a z dwunastu żon, kobiet winidzkich, pozostawił 22 synów
i 15 córek ^).Zgon jego przypada na po(!zątek drugiej połowy
VII wieku, cztery zatem tylko |)okolenia dzielą go od najstar-
szych, historycznie poświadczonych książąt obotryckich i lu-
tyckich Draga, Dragowita i Wilczana.

Wobec przeto tradycyi u Al-Bekrego przechowanej, jest
prawdopodobnem, że ród Drągów od rodu Samona początek
swój bierze, a praojciec tego rodu Dj'ag mógł być synem lub
wnukiem Samona.

Przykladem takim jest Gryfita Janko arcybiskup gnieźnieński
i brat jego Klemens....."

info z ksiazki
WYDAWNICTWO AKADEMII UMIEJĘTNOŚCI W KRAKOWIE

z ZAPI.su &. P. J<SZKPA KURYJKROWA.



O DYNA8TYCZNEM SZLACHTY POLSKIEJ POCHODZENIU

skreślił

Dr. Franciszek Piekosiński.

z 20 tablicami.

W KRAKOWIE,

w DRUKARNI „CZASU" FR. KLUCZYCKIBOU 1 81»Ól.KI

pod xarxi|deiii Józefu LukociiiNkiftgo.

188S.

HARVARD

UNlVERSIp^
LIBR AKT

MAR 7 1963

IsabellaK
Posty: 529
Rejestracja: 07 cze 2011, 14:50

Re: Mistwoy II- Biług-Billung ojciec ,lud dziadek Mieszka I i Ottonow.

Post autor: IsabellaK » 16 wrz 2014, 09:46

The History Of Vandalia: Containing The Ancient And ...
books.google.de/books?id=tOw... - Diese Seite übersetzen
Thomas Nugent - 1766 - ‎Lesen - ‎Mehr Ausgaben
Containing the reign of Mistevoy II. surnamed Billung, till his death in 989. Billung succeeds to the crown. War between the Venedi and the Saxons. War between Otho the Great and the Danes. Otho turns bis arms against the Venedi.
Mistwoy II Oboryta krol Wendow i Oborytow.
----------------
The Peerage of England, Scotland, and Ireland: Or, the ...
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1790 - ‎Lesen - ‎Mehr Ausgaben
He left one son, Henry Leo, in whom, by the marriage of Wulfhildis, the line of Billung, and by the marriage of Gertrudis, the line of Witekind being blended with the Guelphish and the house of Este, it will be necessary to give some account of ...


Henry I. son of Ernest, was made Prince of Trevifo, by Charles the Great, King of the Franks, afterwards made Emperor, who also erected the principality of Este into a Marggraviate, in favour of Henry, from which time this family was honoured with the title of Marggraves. He assisted the Emperor in subduing Desiderius, the left King of the Longobards, and lost his life in a tumult at Trevifo, A. D. 780, leaving issue by his wife Atestia, a daughter, Martia, married to Obelorio Antenorio, Doge of Venice, and one son,

Berengarius, who succeeded his father as Marggrave, but resided chiefly in the court of the Emperor Lewis, furnamed the Debonnair. He died at Paris A. D, 840, leaving three sons, I. Abaldus, who had no male issue; 2. Hunibald, who became Marggrave of Camerino and Spoletto, who died in 849, leaving issue Godfrey, who had an only son, Adelongus, who died in 9 11, without issue; and, 3. Otto I. Prince of Este, of that name.

Otto I. was put in possession of the city and Lordship of Commacio, by the Emperor Lewis, in consideration of the service done by his father and himself. He died A. D. 898, having had issue by his wifeLada, daughter ofCaladoccus, Constable ot Triaid, five sons.

Sigfrid, the youngest son, was the continuator of the family, the issue of all his brothers being soon extinct. He was Lord of Lucca and Parma, and died in 954, being succeeded by his son, Azo II. Marggrave of Milan and Genoa, and Lord of Placentia and Reggio, also Imperial Vicar and Stadtholder in Italy; after many warlike exploits, wherein he was generally victorious, he died A. D. 970, leaving by his wife Hildcgarda, four sons, two of which died young.

Theobald I. and Albert II, the other sons of Azo II. succeeded their father, and agreed upon a division of his vast possessions; we shall speak of these two Princes distinctly.

Theobald I. had a daughter Mary, married to her cousin Hugo III, son of her uncle Albert, and three sons, of whom, the youngest named Bonifacius, succeeded at his father's death in, 1007, to those possessions which were appropriated to the elder branch upon the above-mentioned division, made after the death of Azo II. He first married Richelda, daughter of Giselbert, Imperial Stadtholder at Verona, by whom he had no issue; se-> condly, Beatrix, daughter of the Emperor Conrad II, whereby he acquired Verona, and the office of Imperial Vicar in Italy. Conrad II. was succeeded in the Empire by Henry III, whose enemies were determined to free themselves from such an invincible object to their proceedings as was Bonifacius, and accordingly in 1052, put a period to his life by a poisoned arrow. He lpft a daughter, Mathildis, sole heiress to a great part of Italy, ghe first married Godfrey Gibbofus, Duke of Nether Lorrain,

3

ROYAL FAMILY, c,

and Spoletto, Tvho died 1076; secondly, Azo, grandson of Hugo Ill.; thirdly, Welpho VI. from both of whom she was divorced.

Albert II. the youngest son of Azo II. and brother of Theobald, married Adelheid, widow of Hugo, Count of Paris, and sister to the Emperor Otho II. by which, and the services he rendered his Imperial brother-in-law, he obtained ten castles in Lombardy, and became Count of Frybourg in Germany. He died A. D. 995, and was succeeded by his only surviving son,

Hugo III. Marggrave of Este, Milan, Genoa, Tuscany, and Stadtholder in Italy, who married (as before observed) Mary, daughter of his uncle Theobald. He opposed the accession of Henry of Bavaria to the Imperial throne, on whose exaltation afterwards, by the force of arms, he was obliged with his three sons, to abdicate Este, and fled to avoid the rage of the conqueror, who pursued and made them captives; but instead of sacrificing them to his resentment, he reinstated Hugo in his possessions, and afresh constituted him the Imperial Vicar in Italy. The sons were also set at liberty, and received marks of the Emperor's faTour. This quarrel originated by Henry's threatening the extirpation of the House of Este, common policy, therefore, directed Hugo to prevent his accession to such power as might enable him to fulfill those threats, which it was more than probable were earnestly intended, as there subsisted an animosity between their fathers, which the implacability of each rendered unconquerable, but the Emperor's lenity changed Hugo from an inveterate foe to the firmest of friends. Hugo died A. D. 1014, ten years before the Emperor, by whom his death was greatly lamented.

The three sons of Hugo were, I. Obizzo, who died in 1046, without issue; 2. Adelbrandinus, whose only son Azo was second husband to Mathildis, the heiress of the elder branch of the house of Este, but the Pope disannulled this marriage on account of their near relationship; 3. Azo III.called the Great, who, notwithstand'ng the seniority of his brothers, became Marggrave of Este, He married Cunigunda, daughter and heiress of Guelph 1H. Duke of Lower Bavaria, and Count of Weintgarden. We wal! therefore proceed to shew the antiquity and descent of,

The GUELPHISH LINE,

which is derived from the Scythians, who being driven by the Goths from their settlement at the mouth of the Danube, first encted a kingdom upon the borders of Germany, near the German sea. Upon their first arrival they were called Newmagæ (or New Kindred), afterwards they went under the denomination of Sicambri, and lastly of Franks or Franconians.

Marcomir, the first King of the Sicambri, took possession of that country now called West Frielland, Gueldres, and Holland,

b 3 A. M.

A. M. 3573; he was ancestor to Pharamon, Duke of East Friefland, who married Argotta, daughter and heiress of gene- bald, and grand-daughter of Marcomir V. the last King of the Franconians; and died A. D. 430, being succeeded by his son. Clodio, who deceased A. D. 445, leaving two sons, Merovæus, ancestor to that race of monarchs who were stiled the Merovingian Kings of France; and Albcro or Adelbertus, Duke of Moselle; who died A. D. 491, and was succeeded by his son Vanbertus, who died in 528. Anfbcrtus,his only son, dying in 570, left a son, Arnoldus, Marggrave on the Schelde (from whom the Carlovingian Kings of France were descended,) and a daughter, Gertruda, married to Richemers, Duke of Franconia, by whom she had a daughter, Gerberga, who married Ega, Major Domus to Dagobcrt I. King of t ranee, their issue was a son Erkembaldus, who died in 661. His son Lendisius died 680, leaving one son Ethicus, furnamed Adelricus, who had the duchy of Alsatia, in which he was succeeded A. D. 720, by his eldest son Adelbertus, and by his grandson Eherhardus, in 741.

Alsatia afterwards passed to the posterity of Hetto, the youngest son of Ethicus; and Warinus, ion of Eherhardus, retired to Swabia, where he acquired the Lordship of Altorsst now called Weingarten, and from thence was called Lord or Count of Altorsst.

Warinus died in 780. His son Isembart, married Irmintrudis, sister-in-law to the Emperor Charles the Great, and had by her Guelph I. from whom his descendants were called Guelphs.

Guelph I. married a Saxon lady, named Hedwig, by whom he had three sons, and as many daughters, and died A. D. 820.

Ethico, the eldest son, inherited the countries of Altorsst and Ravcnfburg as a sovereign, but at length retreated to a convent, where he finished his days. He married Judith, daughter of Ethehvolf, King of England, by whom he had two sons, Henry I. and Bardo, slain by the Normans in 880, also a daughter, who married Lewis the younger, King of Franconia.

Henry 1. succeeded his father, and was furnamed with the Golden Chariot, and by the gift of his brother-in-law, Lewis, became Duke of Lower Bavaria. By his wife Orian, Countess of Flanders, he had his son and sucecessor,

Henry II. who died 930, having been married to Hatta, Countess of Howenwart, by whom he had three sons, Rudolph, his successor; Conrad, Bishop of Constance from 934 to 975, and who was canonized by Pope Innocent II. in 1142; and Ethico, Patriarch to a noble family in Sweden.

Rudolph I. succeeded his father, and died 940, leaving issue

by his wife Seeburgis, Duchess of Swabia, an only daughter,

married to Arnolph, nominal Duke of LTpper Bavaria; their

issue was Guelph II. Count of Altorfft and Ravenfburgh, and

z Duke ROYAL FAMILY.' if

Duke of Lower Bavaria. He died in 980, and was succeeded by his son Rudolph Hi

Guelph III. succeeded his father Rudolph IL and married Er mengardis, sister to Cunegunda, wife of the Emperor Henry II. by whom he had Guelph IV. who died about loss, without issue; and a daughter, Cunigunda, heiress of Bavaria, and of the Guelphic States; she married Azo III. (as before mentioned) Marggrave of Este, whereby the blood of the Guclphisli line and that of the house of Este were united in their son,

Guelph V. who began to reign as first Duke of Upper and, Lower Bavaria, immediately upon the death of his father A. D. 1097. He had three wives, first, Ethelina, daughter of Otto, Duke of Saxony on the Weser; secondly, Judith, daughter of Baldwin V. Count of Flanders, and sister-in-law to William the Conqueror; thirdly, Agnes, widow to the Emperor Henry III. In 1096, he engaged in the first Crusade then entered into, for the recovery of the Holy Land out of the hands of the Turks, and died in his return at Paphos; in the island of Cyprus, A. D. 1101, leaving two sons by his second wife; also a daughter, Adelheid, married first to Sighard, Burgrave of Regenspurg; Secondly to Conrad, Marggrave of Landsberg.

Guelph VI. his eldest son, succeeded as Duke of Bavaria, and died in 1119. He married Mathildis, the heiress of the elder branch of the house of Este, from whom he was in a morttime divorced, as is before observed, therefore having no issue, the Dukedom of Bavaria devolved upon his brother,

Henrv III. furnamed Niger, who married Wulphildis, heiress of Saxony, of the Billung line. By this match he was entitled to the duchy of Saxony, and assumed the title of Duke upon the death of his father-in-law Henry Magnus, the last Duke of the race of Billung; but the Emperor Henry V. seized upon the duchy as he had before done of the other estates of Mathildis, yet it at length reverted to the family, as will be seen. This Prince had, besides the Duchy of Bavaria, that of Spoleto, and the Marggraviate of Tuscia, together with the principality of Sardinia. He died about 1125, having had a numerous issue.

Henrv IV. called Superbus, was his eldest son, and succeeded him in the Duchy of Bavaria; by marrying Gertrudis, daughter of the Emperor Lotharius, son to the Emperor Henry V. he had the duchy of Saxony restored to him. He afterwards acquired the duchy of Brawnsweig (now Brunswic) and the county of ^ortlieim, and by the Emperor's favour was invested with the Marggraviate of Tuscia, and the other vast possessions of Mathildis, the wife of Guelph, before mentioned. He was also designed by his father-in-law Lotharius, as his successor in the empire, to insure which, he sent him at his death, A. D. 1137, the crown, scepter, sword, and other insignia of the empire. This precaution, however, did not succeed, for Conrad being

b 4 crowned crowned Emperor by the Pope's legate, and Henry not only returned the insignia,but was required to relinquish Nuremberg and several territories in Italy. The Emperor also declared it contrary to the constitution of the Empire, that two duchies slicruld be held by one Prince, therefore commanded Henry, who was possessed of Bavaria and Saxony, to relinquish the latter. Henry refusing, was put to the ban of the Empire, and lost Bavaria by the defection of his own subjects; yet he defended Saxony, and gave such a signal defeat to the Emperor's troops, that he requested a congress, which being granted, he corrupted one of Henry's attendants, and this brave Prince was poisoned, October 20th, 1139, in the city of Quedlingburg, before the negociation had taken place. He left one son, Henry Leo, in whom, by the marriage of Wulfhildis, the line of Billung, and by the marriage of Gertrudis, the line of Witekind being blended with the Guelphish and the house of Este, it will be necessary to give some account of the ancestors of those heiresses.

The LINE Of BILLUNG.

Hermannus Billung, the son of Billung, of Stubeckeshom, a person of great eminence in Lunenburg, was created Duke of Saxony on the Elbe, A. D. 960, by the Emperor Otto I, in reward of the signal services he had rendered the Emperor. He married Hildegardis of Westerburg, by whom he had two sons and two daughters, and dying A. D. 973, was succeeded by his eldest son Benno or Bernhard I. who died A. D. ion; when his eldest son Bernhard II. became Duke, he married Bertrada, daughter of Harold II. King of Norway, and died in 1062. Ordulph, his eldest son, succeeded to the Duchy, and died 1074. By his first wife Gifela, daughter of Olaus, King of Norway, he had one son, Magnus, who succeeded his father in 1074, and dying in 1106, was the last Duke of the Saxons of this race.. By his second wife, Sophia, daughter ofGeyfa II. King of Hungary, he had a daughter, Wulfhildis, sole heiress to the dukedom of Saxony, who was married to Henry II. furnamed Leo, Duke of Bavaria as before mentioned. T

The LINE Of WITEKIND The GREAT.

. The ancient Saxons being more accustomed to perform great actions than to record them in writing, has caused great obscurity in their history, yet it is generally agreed, that the whole Saxon nation was governed by twelve Chieftains who were chosen every year. These elected one from among themselves who became their chief judge, but had no further authority. When they had wars (which were familiar to them), they chose a King, who re


ROYAL FAMILY. 4

jrninea1 such as long as the war continued, but was obliged to relign his prerogative at its expiration.

U itekind the Great was the last elected King of the Saxons; in whole time Charles the Great, King or France, Italy, and Germany, and at last Emperor, resolved in the diet of Worms, in 772, to have a continual war against the Saxons till they embraced the Christian religion. In 782, Witekind being dispossessed of great part of his territories, was constrained to retire from his country, whereupon Charles the Great made an oath, to kill without mercy every Saxon that should be taken, unless all the relations and particular friends of Witekind were immediately delivered up to him. The Saxons accordingly sent 4500 of their chief men, all of whom Charles the Great beheaded at Verden, and transported several thousands of the common fort to Hungary and Transylvania, in order to disperse this warlike people.

Witekind, with the assistance of the Danes, ventured another battle the following year 783, but was totally overthrown, and with difficulty saved his own person; this was the last of seventeen battles Witekind fought against Charles the Great, and moderate proposals were afterwards made, which Witekind accepted, and was baptised with his whole family by Lullo, Bishop of Mayence, in the year 785. Charles the Great, gave to him the duchy of Ahgria in sief, also created him Duke of Saxony, but obliged him to relinquish the title of King. Witekind, in his old age, made war against the Suevi or Suabians, but being unable to bear the fatigues of war, was suffocated in his armour by the great heat, and was buried at Angria in Westphalia, A. D. 807. He had two wives, the first was Geva, daughter of Siffrid, King of Denmark, by whom he had Wigbert, his successor, and a daughter, Hasala, wife of Bernonis, Lord of Bellensted; the second was Suatana, daughter of Zechius, a Fringe in Bohemia, by whom he had Witekind II. ancestor to the Counts ofWethin.

Wigbert, his eldest son, succeeded him as second Duke of Saxony, and married Sindacilla, the daughter of Rabod, Duke of Friso, by whom he had two sons, Bruno and Walbertus.

Bruno I. at his father's death, in 825, became third Duke of Saxony; he reigned eighteen years, and was succeeded by his son, Ludolph, who enlarged his dominions, and in a great measure repossessed himself of that independence the Franks had despoiled his forefathers of, and was created (by the Emperor Lotharius) Great Duke of Saxony. Bruno II. eldest son of Ludolph, build the city of Btunlwic in the year 861. Daneward, the second son, erected a castle in that city, which retains the name of Dancwerderode, and the youngest son Otho, surnamed the Great, was in such high esteem with the Prince of Germany, that after the death of Lewis IV. the last Emperor of the Carlovingian line, s elected him Emperor in 912, but he refused this dignity on

account account of his advanced age, and recommended Conrad I. Duke of Franconia, who was accordingly elected Emperor.

Otho died in 916, leaving issue by his wife Luidgardis, daughter of the Emperor Arnolf, a son, Henry, furnamed the Fowler, who, on the death of Conrad, was by the Princes of the Empire elected Emperor in 919. He delivered Germany from the oppression of the Sunnis to whom it had been tributary from the reign of the Emperor Lewis IV. and to secure the Empire against foreign invaders, he appointed Marggraves or Governors in its frontier towns. It is this Emperor also to whom Germany owes its great number of cities, for by his care many places were walled in and fortified, both for their defence and the security of commerce; and that the nobility might be inured to the exercise of arms in the time of peace, he, in 935, instituted tournaments, where every one gloried in shewing his address, and which, from that time, were held in Germany for several ages with great solemnity. After 'a glorious reign, he died July 2, A. D. 936, aged 69, of an apoplexy, and was buried at Quedlingburg; having been twice married, first, to Hatburgis, the daughter of Erwin, Count of Merseburg, by whom he had one son, Tancwardus, who was declared illegitimate, and the marriage dissolved on account ot Hatburgis having been a Nun. His second wife Mathildis, daughter of Dietribus or Theodoric, Count of Ringetheim and Oldenburg, was also divorced after she had borne him the following children: 1. Otho the Great, who succeeded to the Saxon dominions, was elected Emperor A. D. 936, and died 973; 2. Grr.berga, first married to Giselbert, Duke of Lorrain; secondly to Lewis IV. King of France, and died in 984; 3. Bruno, who died Bistiop of Cologn in 965; 4. Mechtild, abbeis of Quedlingberg; 5. Rixa, married to Arnulph II. Duke of Bavaria; 6. Hedwig; 7. Henry, Duke of Bavaria; and 8. Adelhcid, wife of Hugo the Great, Count of Paris.

Henry, just mentioned, married Judith, daughter of Arnolph, Duke of Bavaria, and was invested with that duchy by his brother the Emperor Otho, upon thidemisc of Berthold, brother to Judith. He had issue, three sons, 1. Henry Rixosus or the, Quarrelsome, who succeeded his father as Duke of Bavaria in 955, was expelled A. D. 975, restored in 985, and died in 995; 2. Bruno, Marggrave of Saxony; Herman, Count of Northeim, in Hanover; and three daughters, I. Luitgard, wife of Burchard H. a Duke of Suabia; 2. Gerberga, Abbess of Granderiheim; 3, Adelhcid, wife of Burchard, Count of Geilenhausen.

Herman, Count of Northeim, third son of Henry, Duke of Bavaria, was called Duke of Saxony on the Weser, father of Sigfrid I. who was succeeded by his son Sigfrcd II. Count of Northeim and Gottingen, father of Otho, Duke of Saxony on the Weser, and Duke of Bavaria from 1062 to 1070, he was slain

A. D.

ROYAL FAMILY. it

A. D. 1083; leaving iflue by his wife Cuniza of Bavaria, four fons and three daughters, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

Henry Pinguis, who reigned Duke of Saxony eighteen years, and bv Gertraut, daughter of Ecbert I. Marggrave of Saxony, and heiress of the lands of Brunfwic (descended in a direct line from Bruno I. elder brother of Herman, Count of Northeim before mentioned) had issue, Otho, who died young; Herman, Archbishop of Cologn, who died 1099; Gertraut, wise, first of Henry I. Marggrave of Misnia; secondly, of Conrad, Elector Palatine of the Rhine; and Richenfa, who inherited the lands of Saxony, and was married to the Emperor Lotharius II. A. D. 1113, by whom she had an only daughter, Gertraut, who was heiress of Saxony, and by her marriage with Henry Superbus, as was observed, the ancient line of Witekind the Great was blended with those of Me, the Guelphs, and Billung, in the person of

Henrv Leo, who, at the age of ten years, succeeded his father Henry Superbus, under the guardianship of his uncle Guelph, whose conduct during the minority of his ward was uniformly great and faithful, but not attended with success equal to his zeal.

Henry, in conjunction with Albert, Marggrave of Brandenburg, defeated Niclotus, Prince of the Veneds (an inveterate persecutor of the Christians) in several engagements, and compelled him to quit Mecklenburg. He next endeavoured to assert his claim to the duchy of Bavaria, for which he was summoned to appear at a diet in Wartfburg, but refused to comply therewith, and in all probability had not the death of the Emperor Conrad put a stop to the proceedings, Henry would have been a great sufferer. Frederick Barbarossa, who was of the fame family with Henry, and very much his friend, was elected Emperor in 1153; but his public entry into Rome being disputed, Henry, who made apart of the procession, strongly supported the Emperor in his endeavours to force his way, and was so happy as to rescue him from under the feet of the enemy's cavalry. The reward of this signal service was a grant of several extraordinary privileges, and upon his arrival in Germany A. D. 11 56, the Emperor reinstated him in the duchy of Bavaria. Henry also obtained the city and county of Hanover on the Lein, also large possessions upon the Hartz.

Henry, first married dementia, daughter of Conrad, Duke of 7-aringen, by whom he had a daughter, Rixa or Richenza, first married to Frederic, son of the Emperor Conrad III.; secondly, to Canute, son of Waldemar I. King of Denmark, dementia was divorced, an objection being made to their affinity, whereupon Henry married Mathilda, eldest daughter of Henry II. King of England, by whom he had issue,"Maud or Mechild, married to Henry Burewin, Prince of Wenden; Henry the Long,

his his successor; Otho, afterwards Emperor; William of Win Chester, who continued the race; and Luderus, who died A. D. 1191.

Henry Longus, of Zelle, the eldest son of Henry Leo, wasbom A. D. 1170, and succeeded his father August 6, 1195. He married Agnes, daughter of Conrad, Duke of Suabia, and heiress of the Palatinate of the Rhine, in right of her mother Elizabeth, daughter of Herman, Palatine thereof, and by this marriage became Palatine himself. Agnesdied A. D. 1204; and Henry, afterwards married Agnes, Countess of Landiberg; by the former he had one son, Henry, who died A. D. 1212, unmarried; and by the second, two daughters, Ermengardis or Eliche, married to Herman IV. Marggrave of Baden; and Agnes, to Otho the illustrious Duke of Bavaria.

This Prince, for his attachment to his brother Otho,rwas put to the ban of the Empire, yet he kept possession of his dominions until his death. He survived his two brothers, and by that means re-united their possessions, which by agreement had been divided, and dying in 1227, left his estate between his two daughters above mentioned.

Otto or Otho, the second son of Henry Leo, in the partition of his father's dominions, became possessed of Brunswic, Northeim, and Gottingen; also by the favour of his uncle, Richard I. King of England, he received Poitoti andGuienne, in France. He was elected Emperor in 1198, but was obliged to relinquish that dignity to Philip II. after being twice defeated by him in the field; however, it was finally agreed between them, that Philip should enjoy the Empire during his life, and to secure the reversion to Otho, who was to marry Beatrix, the daughter of Philip. In consequence of this agreement, upon the death of Philip in 1208, Otho was crowned Emperor by the Pope, who bound him by oath to defend the fee of Rome and its possessions; notwithstanding this obligation, he seized on many possessions belonging to the fee of Rome; for this breach of faith the Pope excited the Princes of the Empire, who at that time were extremely fearful of the Papalexcommunication, to stand up in defence of religion. The united forces of his enemies obliged Otho to abdicate the Empire A. D, 1212, He retired to his paternal feat at Hartzburg, but would never deliver up the imperial insignia, nor renounce his claim to the Empire. He died without issue, May 15, 1218, enjoining his brother Henry to deliver the insignia to the successor in the Empire, whom the Electors should ap^ point,

William of Winchester, surnamed Longaspatha or Longsword. the third son of Henry Leo, was born in England, in 1184, while his father was in exile; upon the partition of his father's land, he obtained Lunenburg, with all the possessions then annexed to that duchy. He married Helen, daughter of Wal

demar ROYAL FAMILY. 13

demar I. King of Denmark, and died June 25, 1213, being succeeded by his only son,

Otto Puer, or the Infant, born 1204, who, upon the death of his uncle Henry the Long, laidclaim to Brunfwic, alledging that it was not in his uncle's power, much less in that of his daughters, to alienate the duchy from their family. Notwithstanding the utmost precaution of the son of the Emperor Frederick II. Otto took the town by storm, and from that time assumed the title of Duke of Brunfwic. Pope Gregory IX. having excommunicated the Emperor Frederick II. offered to crown Otto Emperor in the absence of Frederick, who was in the Holy Land, but Otto refused this offer, protesting, that his opposition to the Emperor was to no other intent than the recovery of his own right. This disinterestedness of Otto so pleased the Emperor, that in a diet held at Mentz, August21, 1235, he erected hisdominions into a duchy, and Otto became the first created Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburgh. He died June 9, 1252, having been married to Mathilda, daughter of Albert II. Elector of Brandenburg, by whom he had five sons and five daughters.

Of the five sons, Albert and John divided their father's dominions, the former taking Brunfwic and the latter Lunenburg, but they afterwards were re-united upon the failure of issue in the younger branch; Otto died Bishop of Hildefheim in 1279;,as did Conrad, Bishop of Verden, in 1303; and Ulric died an infant.

Albert the Great, the patriarch of the elder branch of the family, succeeded his father, and reigned seventeen years over Brunswick and Lunenburg, but in 1.269, ne divided his patrimony with his brother John, as before observed. He acquired the title of Great by continual proofs of his military virtue superior to most of his co-temporaries. At the age of sixteen he, at the head of the Bohemians and Brunfwickers, gave battle to the Hungarian army consisting of 200,000 men (double his number), took their king prisoner, and gave a total overthrow to the whole body with such a slaughter as is scarce to be paralleled, historians fay that little more than 20,000 survived the engagement, which continued for nine days successively without intermission. In 1158, he took the fortress of Asseburg after a three years siege, and joined the estates of that family to those of the House of Brunswick ; he likewise reduced to obedience the Castle of Wolfenbuttle, which had afforded protection to many of those who despised his authority; in the mean time, Conrad, Count of Eberstein, and Gerhard, Archbishop of Mentz, invaded the country of Gottingen, but Albert coming unexpectedly in the dead of the night upon the leaders of this confederacy, took them'prifoners and prevented that effusion of blood which must have attended a formal engagement. Conrad, who was a vassal to Albert, and as such had taken an oath of allegiance to him, was
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